- I can analyze a primary source image to identify an example of courage through the story of Elizabeth Eckford.
In the 1954 case Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled segregation was unconstitutional. The court urged public schools to be integrated with “all deliberate speed.” The Brown decision was a landmark in the fight for equal rights for Black Americans, but the work to desegregate schools was far from over. The Supreme Court cannot write or enforce laws. Local legislative bodies must write laws and the executive must enforce them. Young people, too, had an important part to play in desegregating schools. Elizabeth Eckford, a fifteen-year-old Black girl, and eight other young people volunteered to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The image below shows Eckford on her way to school in 1957.
Black student Elizabeth Eckford is jeered by white student Hazel Bryan as she attempts to enter Little Rock Central High School in 1957.
Source link: https://bit.ly/466HInd
|Describe what you see.
|What questions do you have about this image?
What inferences might you have about this image’s connection to the civic virtue of courage: The ability to take constructive action in the face of fear or danger. To stand firm as a person of character and do what is right, especially when it is unpopular or puts one at risk?
Explain your reasoning.
How does this image connect to the information about the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) case?
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Brown v. Board of Education | BRI’s Homework Help Series
Brown v Board of Education was a case brought to the Supreme Court in 1954 after Linda Brown, an African American student in Kansas, was denied access to the white-only schools nearby her house. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer for the case, and argued that segregated schools were inherently unequal. Ultimately, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Linda Brown and declared segregation unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment through incorporation under the premise that the bill of rights also applies to the states. This is one of the landmark cases that led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Elizabeth Eckford, the Little Rock Nine, and Purpose
In this lesson, students will learn about Elizabeth Eckford and the sense of purpose that drove the Little Rock Nine. They will explore how the perseverance of Eckford and the other minority students helped advance freedom and equality as well as learn how dedication to their own purposes also benefits society.
The Little Rock Nine
By the end of this section, you will explain how and why the civil rights movements developed and expanded from 1945 to 1960.
Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Little Rock Crisis
The Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954), with its declaration that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, overturned decades of precedent and challenged deeply-held social traditions. Southern resistance to the decision was widespread. President Dwight D. Eisenhower was not enthusiastic about federal judicial intervention in public education, but he carried out his constitutional responsibility to enforce the law by implementing desegregation in the District of Columbia. Not all state governments were quick to comply with the Supreme Court’s order to integrate “with all deliberate speed” and many fought against it openly. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus ordered his state’s National Guard to block the entry of nine newly-enrolled African American students to Central High School in Little Rock. A violent mob gathered in front of the school, and city police failed to control it. Finally, when asked for assistance by the Mayor of Little Rock, President Eisenhower believed his constitutional duty to take care that the laws were faithfully executed left him no choice but to intervene, even to the point of using military force against American citizens.
Eisenhower and the Little Rock Crisis (1957)
A document-based question which explores Dwight D. Eisenhower's response to the Little Rock Crisis. This lesson asks students to asses President Eisenhower's constitutional justification for his decision to send federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to enforce a federal court's order to integrate public schools.